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Taiwan, HK shouldn't quit roles as China culture shapers
Publication Date : 29-04-2014
Public sentiments in Taiwan and Hong Kong have recently been boiling in anti-China localism.
In Taiwan, the worry of mainland Chinese influence has been the main rallying point in the student-led Sunflower Movement. The warning “Let not Taiwan become another Hong Kong” can be heard in the Sunflower protests, referencing the loss of the “authentic” Hong Kong to the influence of mainland Chinese politics, capital and tourists.
In Hong Kong, a row over a mainland child urinating in public during his family's visit to the city recently escalated the already simmering local discontent against some unruly Chinese tourists into a divisive open conflict between Hong Kongers and mainlanders.
It happened months after some Hong Kong protesters confronted a group of mainland tourists outside a luxury store, calling them “locusts” and “Shina” (a term used by the Japanese to describe Chinese people during the World War II occupation).
While there are genuine causes of grievance and concern in both Taiwan and Hong Kong, their strong reactions underline their sense of insecurity and fear for their
culture under an increasingly assertive mainland China. In this context, the localist — and protectionist — sentiments in both places are signs not of strength but of their lack of confidence. The urge to distance Taiwan and Hong Kong from China has become a mainstay in recent protests.
Such drive for de-sinification, however, is misplaced because both regions underestimate their own cultural and political significance in the global Chinese consciousness.
Taiwan and Hong Kong, which have been leading the trend of Chinese culture for the past decades, should not just give up their say in all matters Chinese to the mainland.
While many see Chinese history as the story of the Middle Kingdom, modern China has always been influenced by people living outside the mainland. It was true from the very beginning.
The Republic of China was founded by revolutionists led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, who studied nd practiced medicine in Hong Kong and Macau before becoming an expat in the U.S.
That trend has become even more obvious in the past decades. One of the biggest Chinese icons in recent history is Bruce Lee, who was born in the U.S. and made his name in Hong Kong. In fact, the whole Chinese kung fu movie genre was invented by the late Hong Kong film mogul Run Run Shaw.
One of the most influential Chinese writers is Louis Cha Leung-yung, whose wuxia (martial arts and chivalry) novels loosely based on Chinese history are well-known to the Chinese-speaking world and have been repeatedly adapted into TV series, movies, video games and comics.
Teresa Teng from Taiwan is arguably the most representative of Chinese singers. More recent performers like Andy Lau and Jacky Cheung from Hong Kong as well as Jay Chou and Jolin Tsai from Taiwan are also hugely successful in the Chinese-speaking market.
The wuxia film “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon,” widely seen as the most successful Chinese movie in the international market, was directed by Taiwanese filmmaker Ang Lee and starred Hong Kong actor Chow Yun-fat and Malaysian-Chinese star Michelle Yeoh.
These people and their work succeed not only in representing China to the world but also in reverse-importing “China-ness” back to the mainland. Despite being Taiwanese in an era with much more hostile cross-strait relations, Teresa Teng was so influential in the mainland that the saying “the big Deng (the communist leader Deng Xiaoping) ruled China by day, but the small Teng (the singer, they shared the same Chinese surname despite a difference in transliteration) ruled China by night” was common.
While China was slower in embracing Bruce Lee, the kung fu icon has become a representation of Chinese pride in the mainland. Mainland Chinese producers have become the main adapters of Louis Cha's novels. And the Taiwanese film “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon” helped launch the career of Zhang Zhiyi, arguably mainland China's most successful actor, and several big-budget mainland wuxia films.
While mainland China's increasing financial and political clout will no doubt give it more cultural weight, it is far from certain that Beijing can just bankroll a cultural dominance. Even now, many in the mainland regard Taiwanese and Hong Kong products as superior to their own, which is one of the main reasons behind Hong Kong's mainland tourist overcrowding problem.
Taiwan and Hong Kong's cultural successes were created not with a protectionist state of mind, but with ingenuity, confidence and a can-do spirit. It is not an exaggeration to say that Taiwan and Hong Kong have been the main shapers of the contemporary China's cultural psyche. They should not give up that role without a fight.